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Breton Language[]

Brittany.png

About[]

Breton is apart of the Celtic family of languages that also includes: Irish, Scottish, Manx, Welsh, and Cornish. It is a minority language spoken almost entirely inside pockets of the French province of Brittany. While French is almost entirely the first language of Breton people at large, there are certain groups of people in Brittany where it is spoken as a native language. Even then though, people almost always have a French accent, and the Breton accent is lost to time. You're either learning this because you want to complete the full Celtic set, or because you live in a place that speaks it, but with only 210000 native speakers, and incredibly few secondary speakers, its probably the first.

Dialects[]

Dialects of gwenedeg.JPG

Breton has 4 main dialects: Kerneveg, Leoneg, Tregerieg and Gwenedeg. Some times the Goëlo dialect is sometimes considered a different dialect from Tregerieg because it was in a different bishopric, but linguists tend to classify it as a sub-dialect of Tregerieg. Kerneveg, Leoneg, Tregerieg are usually referred to together as KLT, Gwenedeg being very different form the other dialects.

Accentuation[]

In KLT, the penultimate syllable of each word is accentuated (there are a few exceptions such as amann (butter) and gwechall (erstwhile)), while in Gwenedeg, the last syllable is accentuated.

Orthography[]

Although Breton has been written for at least 1200 years, for most of its history it didn't have a unified orthography (mainly due to the wide variety of dialects). However, there are now three main orthography of Breton: peurunvan (meaning "absolutely unified") created in 1941 and also referred to as "ZH", skolveurieg (meaning "academic") created in 1953, and etrerannyezhel (meaning "inter-dialectal") created in 1975. Peurunvan is the most used.

Grammar[]

DISCLAIMER: The Breton grammar that is very shortly introduced below is the grammar of standard KLT Breton. Grammatical features may vary a lot among dialects. For info on the grammar of dialects, check the "Resources" section.

Word order[]

Breton is mainly V2, with the exception of the location form of the verb to be "emañ". Any component of the sentence can be put first, which results in this component being emphasized:

"I am reading a book in a meadow with a rabbit today"

Bez emaon o lenn ul levr gant ul lapin en ur bradenn hiziv. (neutral)

'Gant ul lapin emaon o lenn ul levr en ur bradenn hiziv. (emphasis on the rabbit)

Ul levr emaon o lenn gant ul lapin en ur bradenn hiziv. (emphasis on the book)

En ur bradenn emaon o lenn ul levr gant ul lapin hiziv. (emphasis on the meadow)

Me zo o lenn ul levr gant ul lapin en ur bradenn hiziv. (emphasis on the subject, me)

Hiziv emaon o lenn ul levr gant ul lapin en ur bradenn. (Temphasis on today)

Form with "emañ" which is VSO :

Emaon o lenn ul levr gant ul lapin en ur bradenn hiziv.

Numeration[]

Breton numeration is mainly vigesimal up to 200:

1 2 3 4 5 6
Cardinal unan daou/div tri/teir pevar/peder pemp c'hwec'h
Ordinal kentañ eil/eilvet/daouvet/divet trivet/teirvet pevarvet/pederver pempvet c'hwec'hvet
7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
seizh eizh nav dek unnek daouzek trizek pevarzek pemzek
seizhvet eizhvet navet dekvet unnekvet daouzekvet trizekvet pevarzekvet pemzekvet
16 17 18 19 20 21 22
c'hwezk seitek triwec'h naontek ugent unan-warn-ugent daou-warn-ugent
c'hwezkvet seitekvet triwec'hvet nontekvet ugentvet unanvet-warn-ugent daouvet-warn-ugent

divet-warn-ugent

30 31 40 41 50 60
tregont unan ha tregont daou-ugent unan ha daou-ugent hanterkant tri-ugent
tregontvet unvet ha tregont daou-ugentvet unanvet ha daou-ugent hanterkantvet tri-ugentvet
70 71 80 90 100
dek ha tri-ugent unnek ha tri-ugent pevar-ugent dek ha pevar-ugent kant
dekvet ha tri-ugent unnekvet ha tri-ugent pevar-ugentvet dekvet ha pevar-ugent kantvet
120 140 160 180 200 1000 2000
c'hwech-ugent seizh-ugent eizh-ugent nav-ugent daou-c'hant mil daouvil
c'hwec'hugentvet seizhugentvet eizhugentvet navugentvet daouc'hantvet milvet daouvilvet
1000000 1000000000
milion miliard
milionvet miliardvet

For 2, 3, and 4, there are both a masculine and feminine form (the masculine form is the first one in the table above).

Nouns[]

Gender[]

Breton, like many other European languages, had two genders. Masculine (gourel) and feminine (gwregel). You can "feminize" some masculine words by adding the suffixe -ez: mignon (friend) becomes mignonez (friend, but feminine), same with labourer/labourerez (worker).

[]

Plurality[]

Nouns tend to only exist in two forms of plural, single and multiple. Similarly to Welsh, Breton has numerous forms for plural depending on the word, and often multiple forms for each words, with slight variations in meaning (e.g. bag (boat) usually becomes bagoù (several boats), but also bigi (same meaning, unusual form) and bageier (a small fleet)).

Parisyllabic plurals[]

Similarly to the english foot/feet and tooth/teeth, some archaic plural forms remained: dant/dent (tooth/teeth), sant/sent (saint/saints), troad/treid (foot/feet), breur/breudeur (brother/brethren, although "brothers" is now the most used form, breudeur is the only form in Breton), ...

Vocalic inflection[]

Drask/driski (song thrush), kar/kerent (parent/parents),...

Suppletive[]

Ki/chas (dog/dogs), den/tud (person/people),... Ki used to make its plural in kon, as it is attested by dourgi (otter, literally dog-water) which still makes its plural in dourgon.

Plural in -où[]

The most frequent form, with over 40% of names, and over half of them when counting the -ioù form. Usually for inanimate objects: aval/avaloù, (apple/apples), fri/frioù (nose/noses), gwele/gweleoù (bed/beds), penn/pennoù (head/heads),... It is also used for people certain types of people, but without mutations: an tadoù (the fathers), ar mammoù (the mothers), ar mestroù (& ar vistri, this form has a mutation) the masters,... or for species of animals: bouchoù (foals), koleoù (young bulls), leueoù (calves, also means retards)...

"-où" is pronounced [u] in Finistère, [ow] in eastern Cornouaille and lower Bro-Gwened, [o] in Treger and [əɥ] in upper Bro-Gwened.

Plural in -ioù[]

Not as common as -où, but still pretty common: avel/avelioù (wind/winds), sinema/sinemaioù (cinema/cinemas),...

Palatization by -ioù[]

rod/rojoù (wheel/wheels), pont/poñchoù (bridge/bridges),...

Plural in -ed[]

About 12% of plurals. For living beings: paotr/paotred (boy/boys), pesk/pesked (fish/fishes), loen/loened (animals),... Some plurals are in -eed, mainly for nationalities and some french loanwords: Frañseed, Hollandeed, jañdarmeed (gendarmes), retreteed (retirees). Feminine words in -ez usually make their plural in -ezed.

Plural in -ien/-ion[]

For jobs in -er/-our, about 9% of plurals. Kiger/kigerien (butcher/butchers), soner/sonerion (bagpipes player),...

Plural in -iz[]

For inhabitants of some place, singular is usually in -ad/-iad: Brestiz, Gwengampiz, Roazoniz,...

Plural in -ier[]

About 2% of plurals. Bazh/bizhier (stick/sticks), gaou/geweier (lie/lies), kazh/kizhier (cat/cats),...

Plural in -i[]

Bleiz/bleizi (wolf/wolves), gast/gisti (whore/whores), gwiz/gwizi (sow/sows),...

Internal plurals[]

Louarn/lern (fox/foxes), maen/mein (stone/stones), tarv/terv (bull/bulls),...

Rare plurals[]

Ael/aelez (angle/angles), laer/laeron (thief/thieves),...

Collective terms[]

About 15% of words, always plural so no plural form.

This list in not exhaustive.

Singularity[]

A strange trait that is mostly unique to is their singulative marker. In Breton, its marked with the suffix enn, used like gwez (several trees) into gwezenn (one tree). The singularity can then be converted into a plurality. In example gwez can be converted into gwezennoù (several trees, but individually).

Singulative can also be expressed through prefixes such as penn-, pezh-, tamm : penn-deñved (a sheep), pezh-dilhad (a piece of clothing), tamm pour (a leek, pourenn and penn-pour also exist).

Articles[]

In Breton, contrasting to other Celtic languages, every article you write has two forms. The two forms are definite (an) and indefinite (un). The constant 'n' changes in both articles based on the following consonants. It is recognized as an 'n' when before another 'n', 'd', 't', 'h', and all vowels. It changes into an 'l' when before another 'l', and it changes to an 'r' when before everything else. Think a/an except more complicated.

Adjectives[]

There are two kinds of adjectives in Breton, synthetic adjectives, for example "bras" (big) inflects as ø (stative), oc’h (comparative), (superlative) and at (exclamative). Other adjectives, for example "heñval" (similar) do not inflect.

Adverbs[]

Adverbs don't inflect at all.

Prepositions[]

Like all of the other Celtic languages, prepositions in Breton are inflected or uninflected. Inflected prepositions typically derive from the contraction between a preposition and a personal pronoun only.

Pronouns[]

In Breton, like most other languages, there is 1st, 2nd, and 3rd persons. The singles of which (in that order) are me, te and /hi (masculine/feminine). The pluralities are ni, c'hwi, and int. There is also an impersonal form with no pronoun, which is the equivalent of the french "on".

Verbs[]

Verbs inflect for number, person, tense, and mood. Breton verbs typically have impersonal forms,and verbal adjectives. Unlike other Celtic languages, Breton has a distinct periphrastic continuous aspect.

Impersonal conjugation[]

Used when insisting on the subject of the action, the subject is mentioned and the verb is conjugated like for the singular 3rd person for all person (a bit like in english): me zo skuizh (I, I am tired (and not you)), an dud-se a gare an natur (those people like nature), me a gan (I sing).

Personal conjugation[]

All verbs are regular, except bezañ (to be), mont (to go), gouzout (to know), kaout (to have) and ober (to do) which have their own conjugation rules (not detailed here). Like in spanish, one does not say the pronoun when conjugating a verb like this: ar chistr a garan (I like cider, word for word "the cider (I) like"). The conjugated verb is composed of a radical and an inflectional suffix depending on the person and tense. Learning the radical for each verb is necessary since it isn't always obvious: the radical for treiñ (to turn) is tro-. Here are the suffixes for each tense for regular verbs:

Present[]
Present
me -an
te -ez
eñ/hi
ni -omp
c'hwi -it
int -ont
∅ (impersonal) -er
Imperfect[]
Imperfect
me -en
te -es
eñ/hi -e
ni -emp
c'hwi -ec'h
int -ent
∅ (impersonal) -ed
Future[]
Future
me -in
te -i
eñ/hi -o
ni -imp
c'hwi -ot/-oc'h
int -int
∅ (impersonal) -or
Past historic[]
Past historic
me -is
te -jout
eñ/hi -as
ni -jomp
c'hwi -joc'h
int -jont
∅ (impersonal) -jod
Conditional[]
Conditional 1 (or potential)
me -fen
te -fes
eñ/hi -fe
ni -femp
c'hwi -fec'h
int -fent
∅ (impersonal) -fed
Conditional 2 (or unreal)
me -jen
te -jes
eñ/hi -je
ni -jemp
c'hwi -jec'h
int -jent
∅ (impersonal) -jed

The two conditional are different: the potential is used for events that are likely to happen (e.g. "if I had a dog..."), while the unreal conditional is for highly unlikely events (e.g. "if I was a billionaire...").

Imperative[]
Imperative
te
ni -omp
c'hwi -it

Irregular verbs[]

bezañ/bout impersonal habitual ponctual personal future imperfect aorist conditional

I/II

me (a) zo bezan emaon on bin oan boen befen/bijen
te (a) zo bezez emaout out bi oas boes befes/bijes
(a) zo bez emañ eo bo oa boe befe/bijes
ni (a) zo bezomp emaomp omp bimp oamp boemp befemp/bijemp
c'hwi (a) zo bezit emaoc'h oc'h biot oac'h boec'h befec'h/bijec'h
int (a) zo bezont emaint int bint oant boent befent/bijent
∅ (impersonal) (a) zo bezer emeur eur bior oad boed befed/bijed

The four first ones are for the present only and are used respectively when the subject is mentioned, for habitudes (usually the b- becomes a v- (e.g. vezomp)), for a specific time and place, and when the subject isn't mentioned and the two previous cases don't apply.

Periphrastic conjugation[]

Used to put the emphasis on the action being done: verb (infinitve) + a + ober (conjugated). Similar to the english "I do" + verb (I do read, I do understand), but more used.

Komz a ran (I talk, "talking I do"), soñjal a rit (you think), gonit arc'hant a rae (he earned money),...

o + infinitive[]

This is the equivalent of English verb +"ing", it describes a continuous action: e kêr emaon o chom (I am living in the city), emañ o debriñ (he/she is eating), ur c’hantad a baotred a oa o c’hortoz (a hundred men were waiting),...

Mutations[]

There are four type of mutations: lenitions, provections, spirantizations and mixts (or leniprovections).

Lenitions[]

Called "kemmadurioù dre vlotaat" in Breton, they happen after an article (under certain conditions), holl, the adverb re, the propositions dadreawardindanemeen ur, ..., the interrogative pronoun pe, the possesive pronouns da and e, the number two (daou and div), the conjunction pa, the pronouns hini and re,... They are the overwhelming majority of mutations in Breton.

They cause the following changes:

P becomes B

T becomes D

K becomes G

B becomes V

D becomes Z

G becomes C'H (except for Gw, which becomes W)

M becomes V

Provections[]

Called "kemmadurioù dre galetaat" in Breton, they happen after the possessive pronouns hoezda'z and az.

They cause the following changes:

B becomes P

D becomes T

G becomes K

Spirantizations[]

Called "kemmadurioù dre c'hwezañ" in Breton, they happen after the numbers three (tri/teir), four (pevar/peder), and nine (nav), after the possessive articles ma, em, he, o (and hon in Tregerieg) and in the word Easter Sunday (Sul Fask).

They cause the following changes:

P becomes F

T becomes Z

K becomes C'H

Leniprovections[]

Called "kemmadurioù kemmesket" in Breton, they happen after the grammatical particles e and o and the conjunction ma (meaning "if").

They cause the following changes:

B becomes V

D becomes T

G becomes C'H

Pronounciation[]

Liammadurioù[]

Similarly to the French "liaisons", in oral speech, there is a type of external sandhi in which consonants at the end of a word change depending on the first letter of the following word. Unlike mutations, this equally important phenomenon is often forgotten by second language speakers. (Source: Jañ An Du (2012, p.32-33)).

Vocalic sandhi[]

When a voiceless consonant at the end of a word is placed before a word starting with a vowel, the consonant is voiced.

Examples:

Cheñch penn d’ar vazh (/ʃɛ̃:ʃ pɛn də vaz/) -> Ar vugale a cheñch hañ (/vy’gɑ:le ʃɛ̃:ʒ ɑ̃/)

Me ’meus tapet korveoù war-lerc’h ar saout (/[me møs ’tɑpə kɔʁ’ve:o waʁ’lɛʁh zo̞wt]/) -> Arri eo e saout er gêr (/ɑj ɛ i zo̞wd ge̞:ʁ/)

This lenition also tends to occur in front of semi-consonants (w, y) and liquid consonants (l, m, n, r):

Paotr (/pot/) -> Paotr yaouank, mat ar jeu ? (/pɔd ’jowãŋk mɑ:d a ʒœ:/)

Un debrer patatez (/’nde̞:bəʁ pa’tɑtəs/) -> Ar patatez nevez n’int ket arruet c’hoazh (/pa’tɑ:z newe niɲ cəd ’ɑjə hwɑs/)

Recent french loanwords seem to avoid this rule: E-skeud din ’neus gallet kaout ur plas aze (/skœt tĩ nøz ’gɑlə kɑ:t plɑs ’ɑhe/).

Other exception, when the word ends with two voiceless consonants:

re dost out : ré dost out mestr ar bizied : mêst e bizièd trist an traoù : trist en trèw

Consonantic sandhi[]

The consonant groups are either voiced or voiceless, it is a universal law: one can have bd or pt, never bt or pd. This is true both within words and in the linking position. When a final voiced consonant is followed by a voiceless consonant or vice versa, the two become either voiced or voiceless, in varying ways. Two voiced consonants can remain voiced, for example in rod dreñ or become voiceless as in rog + dit -> rok tit.

The final consonant can be voiced:

ret din goût hañ : rèd din goûd hañ tout se : toud zé cheñch a ra ya : cheñj ra ya

Or both consonants can be devoiced:

hep dozviñ : hép tèwiñ ur bannac’h gwin : ur bannac’h kwin iliz Zant Laorañs : ilis Sant Laorañs ur marmouz bihan : ur marmous pihen bec’h e vez : béh fé ev da hini : éf te hini

Multiple phenomenon can occur within the same phrase:

gwinizh ha patatez ha boued d’ar vugale : gwinis a patates a bouét te vugalé pet gwezh zo bet lâret dezhañ : pét kwéch so bé lâret téañ bep bloaz a vank gante : bop pla vank kantè hennezh zo ordin o klask jeu deus e c’hoar : héñs so ordin o klask cheu deuz i c’hoar

"Ha" seems to be a special case. Since the "h" in "ha" is silent in many dialects, the consonant before it is often devoiced:

pebr ha holen : pép a holen ur miz hag eizhtez : mis ag eisté saout ha moc’h : zaout a moc’h eizh-ha-tregont : èis a trégont

Although there are some examples of voicing:

lard ha fur : lard a vur Barzh ha Boete : Barz a Boété eizh-ha-daou-ugent : èiz a daou-ugent

Expressions[]

Salud: Hi

Demat/Devezh mat/Boñjour(old-fashioned): Hello

Mont a ra (mat)?/Penaos emañ kont?/Penaos emañ ar bed?/C'haori a ra?/Mat ar jeu?/Mat an traoù?/Mat ar bed?: How ar you/How's it going?

Mat-re/Mat kenañ: Very well

Mat a-walc'h: Pretty well

Fiskal/Disteñget/Dreist/Dispar/Disheñvel/Deus ar c'hentañ/Paseet beuz/Ag ar choaz: Great

Trugarez/Bennozh Doue/Mersi (bras): Thank you

N'am bo ket (,digomplimant): No thanks.

N'eo ket gwir?: Isn't it?

Re wir eo/Gwir, re wir: That's true.

Digarez/Digarezit: Sorry/Pardon me (first one is for te, the latter for c'hwi)

Hag all/Ha me oar-me: etc...

Abred pe ziwezhat: Sooner or later

Un teuzar eo/Un drugar eo/Ul lip-e-bav eo: It's delicious/It's a delicacy

Degemer mat: Welcome

Kenavo: Goodbye

Ken arc'hoazh: See you tomorrow

Ken ar wech all/Ken ar c'hentañ/Ken diwezhatoc'h/Ken vi gwelet/Ken ar c'hentañ gwelet: See you next time

Ken bremaik/Ken tuchant/Ken emberr/ken bremañ-sonn/ken bremañ-souden: See you later

Aet on: I'm going

Erru on: I'm coming

Pelec'h emaout o chom?: Where do you live?

Deus pelec'h out?: Where are you from?

Gourc'hemennoù: Congratulations

Yec'hed mat: Cheers

Chañs vat: Good luck

Lâret zo bet din...: I was told...

Pebezh genaoueg: What a retard

Ro peoc'h din 'ta: Leave me alone

Serr da veg/Serr da c'henoù: Shut up

Ma revr gant...: I don't give a fuck about...

A-drugarez Doue!: Thanks God!

Kae da gac'hat: Go fuck yourself

Pich-kaoc'h: Faggot

Bazh-Pavilhon/Buoc'h sot/leue: Retard

Sot-nay out pe betra?: Are you retarded or something?

Gast: Whore (used like "fuck!" in english)

Trawalc'h!: Enough!

Re 'zo re: Enough is enough

Na gomz ket outañ' evel-se: Don't talk to him like that

A'i 'oa poent!: About time!

Mont gantañ 'vel fars gant un den kozh: It (usually a deal) went easily/without trouble

War ma meno: In my opinion

Etre daou soñj emaon: I'm divided

Ne ran ket a van: I don't care.

Gwelloc'h e vije dit...: You should rather...

Gwelloc'h e vije ganin...: I'd rather...

E gwirionez: In truth/truthfully

War a welan: As far as I can tell

Kudenn ebet: No problem

Kas keloù din: Keep me informed

Biskoazh kemend-all: WOW

Resources[]

Online resources[]

a basic dictionary, and certainly the best you would find online.

A good online, free, breton course. Only issue is its short length.

A free, english, online breton course.

A method book for learning Breton, in English.

Colloquial Breton. In English.

A TON of exercises.

An android app with quizzes on over 2600 words. In French.

Free online method in French.

An incredible online site that teaches breton, that nobody reading this will use because it costs money.

Another great Breton course, for non English speakers.

Same.

Breton-French online dictionary (tregerieg), with pronunciation.

Breton-French online dictionary.

Dictionaries (pdf), in French.

Dictionary with mutations.

Atlas linguistique de Basse-Bretagne (ALBB) is a collection of comparative maps for words in each sub-dialect. It's in French.

Another dictionary.

Breton-French lexicon, with mutations.

Lexique informatique, en français.

Sound bank of dialects.

Resources to learn Gwenedeg (in French).

Website about brezhoneg Goelo (in French).

About Brezhoneg Enez-Eusa (Bro-Leon)

About pronounciation.

Literature[]

http://www.cymraeg.ru/an_hobbit.pdf

The Hobbit in Breton.

http://daskor.bzh/index.php/?language=en

A website with a lot of Breton literature (over 2200 texts).

https://br.wikisource.org/wiki/Wikimammenn:Degemer

Wikisource in Breton, lots of books in Breton.

YouTube channels[]

Two YouTube channels which regularly publish recordings of native Breton speakers. There are no subtitles and the accent of some speakers, especially on the first channel, might be difficult to understand for beginners.

Same as the above, dedicated to the dialect of Bro-Kemperle.

Recordings of native speakers subtitled and translated in French.

A YouTube channel with many interviews and documentaries, some of which are subtitled in English. Most people speaking on this channel are NOT native speakers however, so be careful.

Books (in French)[]

Courses[]

KLT[]
  • Fanch Morvannou, Initiation au Breton sans peine. Ed. Assimil, 1998 (1979)
  • Jean Tricoire, Komzom, lennom ha skrivom brezoneg (2 tomes), Brest: Emgleo Breiz
  • Mona Bouzec-Cassagnou, Selaou, selaou (specifically for Kerneveg, but suited for all Breton learners)
Gwenedeg[]
  • HERRIEU, Mériadeg (1979), Le breton parlé - vannetais, éd. Bleun-Brug Bro-Gwéned

NB: Fañch Morvannou's method teaches this dialect as well.

Dictionaries[]

KLT[]
  • Emile Ernault, Geriadurig brezoneg-galleg. Brest: Brud Nevez, 1984
  • Jules Gros, Dictionnaire breton-français des expressions figurées (2 vol.). Emgleo Breiz - Brud Nevez, 1993 (rééd.), 560p. (graphie non unifiée)
  • Jules Gros, Le Trésor du breton parlé (3 vol.). Emgleo Breiz - Brud Nevez, 1996 (rééd.), 288+560+658p. (1) langage figuré, (2) dictionnaire, (3) style populaire
  • Jules Gros, Le Trésor du breton parlé, 4 (présenté par D. Giraudon). Morlaix: Skol Vreizh, 1989, 151p. (lexique, locutions)
  • Jules Gros, Le Trésor du breton parlé : éléments de stylistique trégorroise. Brest: Emgleo Breiz-Gwalarn-Brud Nevez, 1982 (3è éd.)
  • Le trégorrois à Plougrescant Dictionnaire breton français - Jean Le Dû (dictionary for a specific sub-dialect of Tregerieg, very difficult to find)
  • Korentin Riou, Naig Rozmor, Visant Seite, Lexique français-breton, breton-français.
  • Visant Sèité, Laurent Stéphan, Lexique breton-français et français-breton - Geriadur brezoneg-galleg ha galleg-brezoneg. Brest: Emgleo Breiz-Ar Skol dre lizer, 1993 (27è éd.), 480p. + additions
  • Claude Troude, Nouveau dictionnaire pratique breton-français du dialecte du Léon. Mayenne: J. Floch, Reprint 1979 (éd. 1869), 823p.
  • Claude Troude, Nouveau dictionnaire pratique français-breton du dialecte du Léon. Mayenne: J. Floch, Reprint 1979 (éd. 1869), 940p.
  • Per-Jakez Helias (dir.), Dictionnaire breton-français, français-breton. Paris: Garnier, 1986
Gwenedeg[]
  • ERNAULT, Emile, (1919, rééd. 1998), Dictionnaire Breton-Français du dialecte de Vannes, Brud Nevez
  • HERRIEU, Mériadeg, Dictionnaire breton-français, vannetais, Bruz Nevez - Emgleo Breiz, Brest.
  • HERRIEU, Mériadeg, Dictionnaire français-breton, vannetais, Bruz Nevez - Emgleo Breiz, Brest.

Grammar[]

KLT[]
  • Andreo Ar Merser, Précis de grammaire bretonne. Brest: Emgleo Breiz - Ar Skol vrezoneg, 1997 (rééd.), 171p.
  • L. Le Clerc, Grammaire bretonne du dialecte de Tréguier. Brest: Emgleo Breiz, 1986 (1911), X-248p.
  • Visant Fave, Notennou Yezadur. Emgleo Breiz, 1998, 145p.
  • Fransez Favereau, Yezhadur ar brezhoneg a-vremañ - Grammaire du breton contemporain. Morlaix: Skol Vreizh, 1997, 480p.
  • Pierre Trepos, Grammaire bretonne. Brest: Emgleo Breiz-Brud Nevez, 1996 (1980) 3è éd., 399p.
  • Pierre Trepos, Le pluriel breton
Gwenedeg[]
  • GUILLEVIC, A., LE GOFF, P., (rééd. 1999), Grammaire bretonne du dialecte de Vannes, Ar Skol Vrezoneg - Emgleo Breiz, Brest.

Movies[]

A movie streaming service with films in Breton.

Radio[]

Multiple radios in several dialects

Press[]

Music[]

Lots of lyrics of traditional songs, some have a french translation.

  • Denez Prigent, Yann-Fañch Kemener, Glenmor, Gilles Servat, Alan Stivell, Gweltaz Ar Fur, Youenn Gwernig, Louise Ebrel, Erik Marchand, Barzaz, Sisters Goadec, Brothers Morvan, Marie-Josèphe Bertrand, Pilpazig...

Singers of traditional songs.

  • Soldat Louis (french rock), EV (celto-finnish rock), Añjel I.K., Tri Bleiz Die, Daonet, Les Ramoneurs de Menhirs (breton punk), Heol Telwen (breton metal),...

More modern stuff.


Celtic
Breton Cornish Irish Manx Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) Welsh
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